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Recently, Neville and Reicher presented a study on the relationships between connectedness, emotional intensity, and future participation in different social contexts.
Their findings revealed significant correlations between connectedness in a sense that others are a source of support and warmth and emotional intensity and suggest that emotional intensity may have a mediating role between the strength of social identity and the likelihood of future participation.
Crowd research and public order policing From the ESIM emerge implications for public order policing. If crowd events are intergroup encounters and one of the participants is the police, and if the groups influence each other, then the police have a major role within this scenario and the way in which the police act must have a huge impact on the behaviour of the crowd.
Scholars of public order policing similarly supported the view that crowd behaviour is seen to result from ongoing interaction processes between the participating groups e.
This approach brought about increased research interest on the role of the police and more specifically on the impact of police strategies and tactics on crowd behaviour.
Such changes in public order policing seem to reflect the increased consideration of an effect of policing and the interactive nature and mutual impact of groups within the police forces.
McPhail, Schweingruber and McCarthy for example, differentiate trends of public order policing that have developed over time.
This approach is described in more detail in the subsequent chapter. With an emphasis on cooperation, the policing incorporated negotiations between police and group leaders about the boundaries of acceptable protest.
This trend however is also seen as related with an increasing use of paramilitary policing tactics in order to maintain public order c. Considerations about the role and impact of different tactics stirred up a long running debate about the pro and cons of paramilitary tactics between Jefferson and Waddington in the UK Waddington, , , ; Jefferson, , , and have instigated comprehensive research activities on protest policing for example on the adaptation of different styles in Denmark and Sweden c.
Questions on the effects of different policing strategies on crowd behaviour have further been endorsed by research on the policing of football crowds.
Adang and Cuvelier presented a systematic analysis of the impact of different policing strategies on the behaviour of football crowds at one tournament.
During the Euro two different policing styles had been applied. It suggests the open deployment of small surveillance units in regular uniforms, easily approachable and actively contacting fans.
In doing so, the officers should also set behavioural limits and intervene if these limits were exceeded. If necessary there would be support from decentralised intervention units which were kept away from the street scene for as long as possible.
They were deployed in larger groups, talked a lot with each other and did not actively approach fans. Also more riot police and vehicles where openly present.
The findings suggest a connection between 19 incidents, risk and the style of policing. While it may be suggested that a high police profile would best prevent violent incident, it turned out that most incidents were incurred at games that had been assessed as posing low risk but that were policed with a high-profile strategy.
In other words, where there was an imbalance between the risk and the policing strategy. This goes along with the assumption of the ESIM that an asymmetry of group relations bears the conditions for conflict.
However, this also suggests that symmetric or legitimate group relations would prevent such a change. Bearing upon this, Stott and Adang examined crowd interaction involving English football supporters at 35 away matches with an international dimension.
With regard to police practice, the understanding of risk as a dynamic element played a crucial role for the relationship of the groups.
This implied the need for dynamic risk assessment during a crowd event, which then allows for targeted and timely interventions. Their research suggests that legitimate relations facilitated English fans with peaceful intentions and led to selfpolicing, avoidance of conflict and the marginalisation of those who acted against the group norms.
Researching crowd events While, as indicated before, major changes in the world are often associated with crowd action, crowd research plays a more subordinate role in social psychology.
Scientific contributions on collective behaviour are rather found within criminological or sociological frameworks. Reasons for this are rooted in the object of investigation itself.
Bar-Tal criticised that the emphasis on experimentation results in an artificiality of studied social phenomena, as 20 a manipulated context does not reflect the complex situation of reality that may influence human behaviour and narrows down the range of investigated issues.
Often, more attention would be paid on the operationalisation of variables than on the research problems studied.
Bar-Tal yet proclaims the necessity of observing real-life situations in order to understand the behaviour of individuals and collectives. While, as we saw in the previous chapter, crowd theories go back to the 19th century and a lot has been written and published about crowds, his declaration is not unreasonable as it took until the ies for scholars to step out of the ivory tower and actually study the object of research.
The kinds of methods used in crowd research will be subject of the following section. Questionnaires and interviews Post hoc data collection, such as questionnaires or interviews with participants and witnesses may be carried out in order to understand and reconstruct what happened during an event and to be used as a means for data triangulation.
In particular for the study of crowd violence post hoc data collection may be useful as the development of disorder in a natural setting is difficult to predict Vider, The vivid sometimes conflictual course of a crowd event makes it difficult to gather appropriate data and may even put the researcher in danger.
On the other hand it can be possible that participants are engaged in the happenings so that comprehensive interviews are difficult.
Such interviews or questionnaires can be designed using usual social scientific methods. In recent years there is also an increasing use of internet surveys.
Newspaper data analysis A great deal of crowd research relies on the analysis of media, such as newspaper and electronic reports.
The disadvantages of this method refer to the fact that it may contain lopsided views and descriptions. Their findings show that only 10 percent of the registered events were actually reported and most of the demonstrations have a participation of less than 25 persons, while the likelihood of media coverage was connected with the size of the event.
Conversely, Retzlaff provides an analysis of a overwhelmingly positive media coverage during the World Cup in Germany with regard to the construction of concept of collective German patriotism.
The issue of media influence is also discussed in the empirical papers Paper 2, 3, 4 of this thesis. Seidler, Meyer and Gillivray developed a set of techniques for data gathering among stationary crowds.
Drury and Stott advocate the use of direct, on-the-spot observational strategies for the research of crowd events. They argue that crowd events are characteristically intergroup encounters, in which there is a mutual influence of the participating parties.
Therefore, in order to understand crowd psychology i. In practical terms, Drury and Stott suggest that the researcher joins with one group, basically becoming an ingroup member and 22 thereby opposing the outgroup.
Advantages are seen in three aspects: Firstly, ingroup members will far more likely be open for interviews and talk about their views and perceptions of a specific situation and their relations to outgroup members and they are more willing to share internal documents and knowledge.
However, taking sides may also mean constrained if not impossible access to the outgroup. Secondly, the quality of data is improved.
The final point concerns the data analysis and the question if it is possible to maintain a distance to accounts of in-group participants within a framework of partisan research.
Structured observations Although crowd research activities are to a great deal based on ethnography, some methods have been developed for systematically observing and recording collective action, that transfer the happenings during a crowd event into quantifiable data and thus allow for a statistical comparison of different events.
Schweingruber and McPhail aimed to design a method that records the extent and variation of crowd behaviour, is flexible enough to be used for different types of gatherings and research questions, and is easy to use so that observers can easily be instructed.
The development of the method went along with a conceptual understanding of crowds. The actual data recording is carried out by multiple observers, most of which are undergraduate students that are distributed among the crowd.
Prior to the actual event the observers are given written documentation and a training session that includes information on the specific event and the procedures involved in this method.
During the event the observers fill in a code sheet, recording what is being done collective action can be allocated to 40 different forms and by whom.
Here, six categories are provided: As violence involves at least an actor and a target, Adang argues that violent behaviour cannot be understood without considering the interaction between these two parties.
This focus on interaction can be seen as the main difference of this approach to that of Schweingruber and McPhail Variables were drawn from preliminary analyses of a number of real-life situations and video material as well as a literature review on crowd events.
They further had to be easily observable so that they could also be determined by the participants themselves and they had to bear an impact on the situation, for example: Similar to the procedure of Schweingruber and McPhail, the observers receive a comprehensive training, including lectures on the theoretical background, the observation protocol, observation techniques and observation exercises.
The observations at football games cover the time in which most of the fans were present at the venue and in the city centre, generally starting several hours before kick-off and were finished some hours after the game.
The observers were instructed to choose areas where large groups of fans gather, for example at the central station, at squares in the city centre and around the stadia.
Every fifteen minutes a sample is taken on the number and kind of persons e. Police intervention is defined as dispersal, stopping or arrests and it is noted if police had made use of force.
Observers also take notes on their impressions and observations that they made in-between sample time. The systematic observations allow to relate different variables to the number of incidents and to compare results of different events.
Alternative developments of crowd research Impacts of technical development on crowd observations New technological developments and the increased use of internet facilities provide a wide range of data collection around crowd events aside of any planned scientific research design.
Levine ; Economist, took advantage of the multiple display of the CCTV camera surveillance system in Britain to explore the factors that make the presence of bystanders successful or unsuccessful.
The group had gained permission to use the video footage of incidents at public spaces in the night-time-economy that had been recorded within 25 one year between January and February in British towns and cities.
In doing so they were able to study group behaviour in a natural setting that could previously not be tested for either practical or ethical reasons.
The videos had no sound and the persons could not be recognised. Incidents were chosen with regard to certain criteria, such as length of the incident and group size.
A coding scheme was developed that covered the themes of status e. The results suggest that groups spontaneously try to regulate the behaviour of ingroup members and that the prevention of violence increases with group size.
It is argued that such reports would distort and misinterpret the actual happenings and serve as a base for restrictions of liberal human rights and justifications thereof.
In Germany such observations are carried out since the protests against the nuclear plant in Brokdorf Steven, Similar processes can be observed in the context of football: As a reaction to what they felt as illegitimate police conduct some groups of football fans have undertaken own measures for evaluating an event.
The observation activities are not announced and will only be published successive to the respective game. The groups are using field observational methods carried out contemporaneously.
Observations focus on the behaviour of mainly police forces but also on other security staff with football fans. The observation groups are requested to focus on questions such as: Has the policing been reasonable and proportional in all aspects?
Was the behaviour respectful, did the officers introduce themselves, were fans informally addressed on a first name basis.
Did officers act socially sensibly with regard to youngsters? Were there any unreasonable harassments observable? The reports are published on the internet.
Peer review teams An alternative form of evaluating crowd events has lately gained increased interest.
The basic idea of this approach is to bring together public order scientists and police practitioners in the observation of an event. Evaluation of a crowd events is not carried out by some ivory tower inhabitants far detached from real life as 26 some police practitioners may see academics , but by colleagues from other forces that are dealing with similar problems in their own work.
From to a pilot study involving 13 evaluations was carried out on request of the EU Police Cooperation Working Party.
The peer reviews are now part of EU training program for police commanders. When a peer review is requested, the hosting force is asked to name of number of evaluation points.
It is these points that the subsequent evaluation plan is then designed around. A team of about 5 police commanders is composed and is accompanied by academic staff.
A peer review takes three days. On Day 1 the team arrives at the site, familiarises with the infrastructure, makes first contacts with the police forces and other parties that are relevant with regard to the respective event e.
On the basis of the evaluation points the team then agrees on an evaluation plan. On Day 2, the day of the event the team conducts interviews and carries out contemporaneous observations prior, during and after the event.
Day 3 is used for writing up the first draft of the evaluation report, when team members discuss their observations in relation to the respective evaluation points.
The report will be worked out by the academic member of the team and send to the members for a final check up before it is delivered to the requesting force.
The value of this method has different aspects. An important factor lies in the confidentiality of the evaluation and the final report will be the ownership of the requesting force.
The reviewers themselves gained concrete new ideas from their observations and during the discussions with their colleagues. They also valued the fact that they were able to look at a police operation from the outside.
The cooperation of practitioners and scientists helps to break up barriers and to gain more understanding. Many reviewers experienced it was difficult to first observe, and then make conclusions: Up to date theses evaluations have been carried out mainly in the context of football.
Some forces have begun to introduce national peer reviews, some are planning to use peer reviews for the evaluation of 27 the policing of demonstrations.
Along with other models the ESIM draws on interaction, more specifically it suggest that in order to understand the dynamics of a crowd event it is necessary to consider the relations and ongoing interactions between those groups that are present at a specific event.
The ESIM has been developed from - and was validated by a substantial number of studies of crowd events in violent and non-violent situations.
Summarising its basic assumptions the ESIM explains both the escalation and the avoidance of collective conflict as a result of ongoing social relations.
Secondly, the ESIM explains the establishment and maintenance of non-violent norms as a result of legitimate group relations between crowd members and the police, avoiding an identity shift towards conflict.
It is proposed that legitimate group relations are connected with selfpolicing, marginalisation of violent crowd participants, and lack of support for attempts of provocation.
This approach has meanwhile been integrated in practical policing and into guidelines for the policing of football matches with an international dimension within the EU.
Despite this obvious practical relevance, the scientific analyses on crowd dynamics based on the ESIM have only focused on British in particular, English and Scottish crowds so that there were only few theoretical and empirical analyses of how such dynamics apply to crowds from other cultural backgrounds.
Methodical and methodological considerations The methods and analytical strategies of this thesis are determined by the assumptions of the model, so that the respective parties involved and their mutual interaction had to be 29 considered; these are described in more detail in the respective papers.
Furthermore, the research activities were sought to be carried out contemporaneously because the direct observation of - and the participation in a crowd event allows to focus on aspects that are relevant with regard to the theoretical model and it provides for the flexibility that is necessary within such a dynamic framework.
This approach further makes it possible to collect data on reactions and comments of persons that are immediately involved in or subjected by the event; in doing so it is possible to document how perceptions and behaviour relate to a possibly changing context.
Like Bar-Tal has pointed at the difficulties that are imminent in doing research around real life events, similar methodological issues concern this thesis.
The aim of this thesis is therefore not to provide a test of hypotheses. It rather seeks to provide an explorative study and it aims to contribute to the body of research that has up to now been carried out around the ESIM.
While, in a rigorous positivistic sense, this does not serve as a method of gaining new scientific insight, this research seeks to present additional material in order enhance plausibility of this model.
The results can further serve as a hypothesis generating procedure and a base for further research which may be broken down into testable studies.
Research questions and empirical studies Drawing on the lack of cross cultural research among ESIM studies, the research of this thesis focuses on the following research question: This main research question was broken into different sub-questions, each of which is presented within an individual research paper.
Paper 1 presents an incident involving German fans during the European Championships While Stott and colleagues , had provided analyses involving England fans this paper seeks to answer the question: Were the processes that the ESIM proposes are responsible for the absence of widespread disorder among England fans also evident among German fans attending the same tournament?
Studies including Paper 1 which explain the shift away from violence mainly refer to the policing that was carried out around the Euro It may be argued, however, that the success of Euro was singular, merely applying to that one event or the specific groups that were present in Portugal during the tournament.
Research was therefore carried out at Germany , focussing on the following questions: Do the relations and the effects that the ESIM suggests also apply in different contexts that may be formed by national or cultural features or by the understandings and philosophies of the police forces?
How do police tactics and deployments relate to the relations between different fan groups and between fans and the police? Paper 3 presents a case study involving Polish and German fans at the same day.
Specifically, the study examines the relation between the policing strategy and tactics and the behaviour and perception of Poland and Germany fans in contexts of risk and non-risk.
As prior to the tournament a substantial number of papers and other media had described Poland fans in a rather negative way, the paper further sought to answer the question: Was the negative image that was portrayed of the Poland fans before the tournament justified and did this have an impact on the relations between the fan groups and the fans and the police?
Paper 4 explores German fan identity at three different tournaments: In contrast to previous ESIM research, which describes social change as a result of conflictual group relations, this study examined social change within a peaceful context.
It examines the effects and dynamics of symmetric group relations and in doing so to provide an explanation of why German fans in and subsequently in were empowered to live out their national identity and positive emotions but not so in ?
The actual research activities are presented as single paper publications in scientific journals. The papers are integrated in the following section.
Each paper is preceded by a foreword of the author. It reports on personal impressions and experiences that occurred during the research process and it highlights aspects of the research that seem relevant to this thesis but are not or only briefly mentioned in the actual research paper.
Funding by the ESRC had enabled a comprehensive research design using a variety of methods; most of which were carried out contemporaneously and data triangulation would then provide a rather comprehensive picture of the goings on.
Much of the data that came out of this program has meanwhile been published elsewhere; however, the focus group is English see Reicher et al. In line with the other research activities the data collection should be carried out contemporaneously; using an ethnographic approach was seen as the most flexible and fruitful way to provide for a broad body of data.
This could then be triangulated with the data that was collected by other observers of the research team.
The idea was for me to be with the fans to listen, speak and observe. As it is the case with ethnographic research, access to and a kind of acceptance by the group being studied is vital.
I believe that more than 25 years of being a football fan myself, has provided the necessary authenticity to get this access on the field, in this case in the fan zones, cafes, stadium, camping sites.
Personal contacts with the German fan project also helped to get access to some more internal information for example when some were arrested.
However, being interested in crowd-police interaction the research also concerned the role, perception and behaviour of the police. A delegation of German police spotters was present in Portugal, liaising with Portuguese colleagues with a focus on the German risk supporters.
Again, it was personal contacts that were made with the German home office and the German national football information point that facilitated 32 access to these bodies during the tournament.
Like with the fan group, acceptance and trust are vital to get access. So it was for example possible for me to make informal conversations around the gatherings of fans and to conduct semi-structured interviews with members of the German police delegation.
After all, we cannot usually predict when a riot will occur. And this was in fact the place where the incident happened that this paper reports on.
The incident indeed occurred around the most high risk game of the tournament Germany versus the Netherlands ; there had been tensions and expectations beforehand and there had been provocations that initiated violence.
In a way this was all well after the textbook. But, as it is outlined in the paper, low profile policing tactics of close surveillance, quick and targeted interventions and clear escalative and deescalative deployment prevented the situation from further escalation.
Five people were detained that night, but as no further German fans got arrested in the remaining part of the tournament though some did for ticket touting , this was indeed the biggest incident.
Ironically, this conflict did not occur on matchday but on the night before. So while we were prepared for multiple comprehensive data collection, the structured observations could not be used for this study, as they focused on the actual match day where there was no incident.
With regard to the ESI-model of crowd behaviour, this study has different implications: Secondly, it supports the model by providing support that similar processes were at place with German fans as they were with England fans in Portugal.
As incidents involving England fans occurred in Lisbon but the Germans were in Porto, there may be an effect of the specific policing in one city.
Finally, the study promotes the positive effect of combining research and practise, as it had been the close collaboration between police authorities and scientists that provided the base for the strategic approach that was carried out at the tournament, which has up to now been the most peaceful that has been carried out in Europe within the last 30 years.
Tag schuf Gott den 1. This paper provides an analysis of the social psychological processes among German football fans during the European Championships in Portugal in relation to the policing that was carried out by the Portuguese Security Police.
Data was collected drawing on qualitative observational methods. The analysis focuses on a violent incident between German and Dutch fans prior to the game between the Netherlands and Germany in Porto.
Findings suggest a connection between low profile policing and the support of non-violent group norms among the wider crowd and the disempowerment and marginalisation of confrontational groups.
The article concluded with a description about a group of German fans that peacefully and unhindered raised their banner amidst a Dutch crowd Klemm After the Dutch trauma in and the German trauma in a peak was reached when a Dutch and a German player were sent off for spitting and arguing at the World Cup in in Italy.
While the situation has somewhat calmed since and public disorder at Netherlands-Germany fixtures is more connected with 4 Germany beat the Netherlands at the WC finals in Germany; The Netherlands beat Germany at the Euro in Germany and subsequently won the tournament.
German police forces set bans to prevent known troublemakers from travelling and the Portuguese authorities assessed this game as the one posing the highest risk of the tournament.
However, it turned out very peaceful with multiple friendly encounters between the groups and hardly any incident. Given the history of violent incidents and the classification of the fixture as high risk questions arise regarding why it was that no major incident of collective disorder occurred?
Crowd behaviour and public order policing Whilst some classic theorists described crowds as inherently criminal because of the convergence of those predisposed to crime Sighele, ; Allport, others portrayed them as dangerous because they reverted cultivated individuals to a barbaric level of primitive drive e.
Despite such qualitative difference, the common feature of these explanations was a focus on the crowd itself and its inherent and universal pathology.
This decontextualised and reified view of the crowd put forward by classic theory has been supplanted within social psychology by a model that emphasises the contextual determination of crowd action, particularly in terms of the dynamics of intergroup interaction.
Rather than a mere focus on the crowd, crowd behaviour is seen to result from ongoing interaction processes between the participating groups e.
This view involves an increased focus on the strategies and tactics of the police impact on crowd behaviour. The first characterised by a negative view of the protesters, little or no communication and an escalating use of force.
This trend however is also seen to be related with an increasing use of paramilitary policing tactics in order to maintain public order c.
In their evaluation of the European Championships in Belgium and the Netherlands, Adang and Cuvelier presented an analysis of different policing styles and their impact on fan-behaviour within the same event.
In the run up to the tournament the two countries had agreed on a friendly and firm tactical concept that was basically preventive and pro-active and based on a combination of police expertise and public order research Adang, It comprised the open deployment of small surveillance units in regular uniforms, easily approachable and actively contacting fans.
In the cities that used a high profile approach, there were three times as many officers visible. Policing in low profile cities was more carried out according to the tactical concept and the behavioural profile that was initially agreed on.
Relating the different styles of policing to the number of violent incidents, the highest number of incidents was measured at games that had been assessed as posing low risk but that were policed with a high-profile strategy.
However, they only show that a certain style is working, not why. The ESIM puts an emphasis on the interactive character of a crowd situation and the mutual influence of the participating groups.
It assumes that people define themselves as members of the category that is salient in a given situation and will conform to its beliefs and standards.
Studies among different crowds, such as protesters, demonstrators and football crowds e. Where police used indiscriminate force against crowds this could lead to circumstances where crowd participants began to unite psychologically and define their relationship with the police as illegitimate.
Bearing upon this, Stott and Adang ; examined crowd interaction involving English football supporters at 35 away matches with an international dimension.
Their findings led to recommendations for police practice in general c. This concerned in particular the tactical depth of deployment, in which four levels of response provided for targeted and adjustable interventions.
Their presence was aimed to transmit a feeling of security, their specific tasks involved pro- active communication, surveillance and the resolution of small incidents.
In case of escalating risk, they would be supported by further intervention units that were placed out of sight. It was evident how the PSP policing provided a context in which self policing among England fans was facilitated or how differentiated police interventions prevented the escalation of violence Stott et al.
Particularly the findings around the Euro on its facilitation of self-regulation among the fan group and the marginalisation of anti-social behaviour have had a high impact on practical policing, so that issues of the approach have meanwhile been integrated in the EU Handbook with recommendations for international police cooperation 6 EU, However, the existing literature focuses exclusively upon the policing and psychological reactions of England and Scotland fans.
Consequently, there is as yet no empirical analysis of the cross cultural dimensions to the dynamics outlined within ESIM.
More specifically there is a lack of evidence concerning the psychology, group processes and intergroup relationships involving and surrounding high-risk categories from other nations attending football matches and 5 Stott et al.
The perception of the inappropriateness of police action, subsequently led to an increasing sense of the perceived appropriateness among England fans to confront the police.
This absence within the literature is made more acute given the extent to which the ESIM is currently informing updates to international guidelines for international police cooperation and pan-European police training with respect to football matches with an international dimension.
Moreover, the fixture between Germany and the Netherlands during the opening rounds of the tournament was classified by the organising authorities to be the one posing the highest level of risk to public order.
None the less the event passed without any major disturbances. The subsequent analysis will examine if the processes that the ESIM proposes are responsible for the absence of widespread disorder among England fans were also evident among German fans attending the same tournament.
Method The data presented in this paper was collected as part of a wider research project of which a number of analyses from this broader project have already been published elsewhere see Reicher et al.
It is the intention of the present paper to add to this literature by providing an account of the broad dimensions of German fans collective behaviour and police deployment surrounding events involving German fans.
Data was gathered using a variety of techniques. Semi-structured observations and interviews. Semi-structured observations were carried out for the duration of the tournament by the current authors.
This data was obtained while the observers participated in gatherings and events where large numbers of German fans were involved.
The first author, who is German, was also embedded among German fans during the tournament, conducting semistructured observation and interviews.
Her data collection was carried out around two games Germany played in Porto and one in Lisbon. Her observations in Porto started on June She went to places where great numbers of German fans gathered.
She attended the game against the Netherlands on June 15 and against Latvia on June 19 and visited public screenings at fan zones.
Together with German fans she travelled to Lisbon by train where she resumed her observations on June Again, data collection was concentrated on the location where German fans gathered.
In Lisbon these included several squares in the city centre: On June 23 she attended the game of Germany against the Czech Republic.
Though Germany did not proceed to the second round of the tournament, many fans stayed in the area which allowed for further data collection until the final game of Portugal against Greece on June 30 in Lisbon.
While she was embedded with fans, she made informal contacts and revealed her status and aims as a researcher. In doing so she was able to speak with the fans about the specific research issues but also to refer to themes that arose in a specific situation.
Informed consent was obtained and interviews were digitally recorded and later transcribed. As the fan groups had mingled, the recorded conversations also involved 12 fans from The Netherlands, 13 from England and 4 from Croatia.
The interviews with German fans displayed in this paper were translated by the first author all other interviews were conducted in English.
These interview data were also cross referenced with media reports, such as newspaper and internet articles. Interviews with police commanders A series of semi-structured interviews were also conducted by the authors with a variety of police Commanders.
The interviews focused on general strategies and tactics that 42 had been applied in Porto during the tournament and considered specific incidents that occurred in Porto with respect to the management of events surrounding the fixture between Netherlands and Portugal.
Interviews with police commanders were carried out either at Police Headquarters in Porto or in the field during and after the events that are outlined in the behavioural account.
Analytical strategy The analytic strategy in this paper follows that of previous research that is based on the ESIM e.
The analysis comprises three sections: The behavioural account provides a chronological description of incidents, police deployment and behavioural norms among crowds of German fans based primarily upon the semi-structured observational data but which also draws form the interview data from fans and police, photographs and video footage.
In particular, the account focuses on those aspects of the events that will be put to further analysis in the subsequent sections. Data were triangulated and where only one source provides data related to an event, the source is identified Stott et al.
The interviews were transcribed and read several times. This process was informed by the theoretical approach and the understandings and perceptions of the specific groups: For the police interviews, the analysis focused on police understandings of their role, their strategy and tactics used to police German fans and how these relate to those aspects of fan behaviour identified as relevant within the behavioural account.
Again, following the theoretical approach, the analysis focused on the fans perception of the event and attitudes toward outgroups, the views of ingroup behaviour and intergroup relations and any further points of interest and emerging issues that seemed to be relevant.
The right-hand margin was used to annotate these themes. These notes were organised and sorted into categories and subcategories.
From this a coding scheme was developed and again applied to the interviews. Codes were assigned to the transcripts. Segments were grouped under each code before they 43 were related to issues from the interactional context, as it was described in the behavioural account.
For each theme a verbatim extract from the interviews is presented that best illustrates the analytical point. Results Behavioural account The majority of the German fans followed the team during the group phase where they played the Netherlands and Latvia in Porto and the Czech Republic in Lisbon.
The fixture between the Netherlands and Germany was initially drawn to take place in the city of Aveiro. However, given the perceived risks to public order posed by this fixture a decision was taken by the Organising committee to move the game to Porto for organisational and safety reasons c.
The match was scheduled for 15 June and many German fans had begun to arrive in Porto some days prior to the game.
However, the first significant mass gathering of fans began on June By mid afternoon large numbers of Dutch and German fans had gathered in the pubs, cafes and on the squares of the city centre of Porto.
Small numbers of fans from other nations were also present in the city, such as Greeks, English, Danes and Swedes. The Porto city authorities had assigned official zones to the two fan groups, each set up with a stage and a big video screen.
However, fans were not strictly segregated and mixed at these locations and elsewhere in the city centre. According to information from the Dutch and the German police delegations, about German and 60 Dutch hooligans were also present in Portugal.
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Cordialmente, Silvia A Da mangiare sempre con la buccia http: Massimo alcalinizzante e la frutta di tutti i colori map es celexa Si possono mangiare tranquillamente crudi nelle insalate map fr accutane Malattie raredott Foto: Y Lan - Fotoliacom di ss http: Voi siete responsabili delle vostre azioni map de tadora Filtrate lo sciroppo e mescolatelo alla ricotta map no zyban donna, ha tra i 35 e i 54 anni e un livello culturale medio-alto L incidenza del melanoma in continuo aumento http: Via libera dunque alla sostituzione map da lamisil L attivit clinica allergologica del prof map sv zithromax Per diventare terra viva ha bisogno di contatto con la terra nuda Cordiali saluti http: Alessandro Inserra, sono una mamma di una bimba di quasi 4 anni map fr propecia Mi faccia sapere se possiamo esserle utili map da flagyl Segua sempre quelle del medico curante di sua madre Risposta risposta a cura del Dr http: Alla fine avrete un panetto omogeneo, morbido ed elastico map es zyban 02 map it xenical I legumi sono tra gli alimenti vegetali piu ricchi di calcio Resto a disposizione per eventuali ulteriori necessita http: E una ragazza sana ed intelligente map es singulair Schiavino Paola Risposta al Professore map sv orlistat Non ci sono punti deboli, non ci sono tentennamenti Piaggio e coordinatore del progetto - http: Lei e una persona rara map sv finpecia Non ci sono punti deboli, non ci sono tentennamenti map no diflucan Non ho piu assunto farmaci da allora, se non Paracetamolo Lo stesso accade col ferro, che in grandi quantit tossico http: Ci sono persone piene di gratitudine, trasformate e guarite map de vpxl Maggio , tac di controllo: I legumi sono tra gli alimenti vegetali piu ricchi di calcio map pt zovirax Per i ritardatari, esistono delle soluzioni parziali map sv celebrex Era grave e, con molte probabilita, aveva altre malformazioni L antistaminico non risulta sufficiente http: Colin Campbell e di altri autorevoli scienziati map de estrace Non deve essere un semplice mucchio di rifiuti map no diflucan Ipertrigliceridemia Mio marito ha i trigliceridi a L ultima ragione e che hai tutta la liberta qui http: Un problema molto sentito in Germania map fr proscar I legumi sono tra gli alimenti vegetali piu ricchi di calcio map es atarax Si sente, ma non si vede Come posso aiutarla?
Il faut dire que le contexte a change map nl kamagra Mais ce n est pas tout map es amoxil La plupart des pays europeens l ont transposee map nl valtrex En entendant du bruit, il est intervenu Je ne souhaite cela a personne http: On a decapite le trafic , claironnait M map nl celebrex Comme Eric, 54 ans, adresse par un pneumologue map sv clomid Elles ont precise que sa carcasse serait detruite map hu nexium Ils n ont qu a passer par la loi A prendre comme un signe de paix http: Io li uso tantissimo per insaporire le insalate map de tadora apatia mentale, anoressia, vomito map pl clomid Quello che sta cambiando il modello , riflette Comi Steiner ha portato questo movimento attraverso diverse fasi http: Uno o piu polipeptidi costituiscono una proteina map de vpxl su un altezza di 1,65 map sv pepcid Riequilibra lo zucchero nel sangue Conoscere in anticipo il rischio familiare con analisi genetiche http: Si associa iperecogenicita dei mesi map hu zithromax Thomas Tryon difese le ragioni etiche del vegetarianismo map sv cialis E tutto alla luce del sole, gratuito, alla portata di tutti Ne soffriva gia all interno dell utero http: Nel dubbio meglio saperne di pi E possibile?
Un caro saluto map nl levitra Grazie e saluti map no eriacta Maggio , tac di controllo: Frutta e verdura sempre piu sotto i riflettori http: Irrilevanza dei casi marginali map it tadalis Si scopre cos che la fame di informazione contagia 4 persone su 10 map no voltaren Il compost sta fra humus della terra e un organismo vivente Schiavino Paola Risposta al Professore http: Anche gli andrologi potrebbero avere pi lavoro map hu levitra La pollinosi da alberi pu rovinare anche il sonno map nl actos Uno degli obiettivi fondamentali per cui nel nata la Rete Vivr una settimana in pi e in quella settimana piover a dirotto http: Non ultimo il problema dei farmaci map it cialis Grazie Risposta Purtroppo anche la sola carta e nociva map de ventolin Regola numero uno: Esse hanno il diritto di vivere nel loro habitat map sv viagra Il compost sta fra humus della terra e un organismo vivente map pt lioresal La ringrazio in anticipo E di salute, soprattutto http: Il lavoro map no zithromax Anche gli andrologi potrebbero avere pi lavoro map fr viagra Uso anche le supposte di glicerina, ma sovente non fanno effetto Non e detto http: In attesa di una sua risposta la ringrazio infinitamente map fr erectalis Ma non esistono malattie tipiche e malattie nemiche map fr paxil Specializzazione in Chirurgia Pediatrica nel Il decalogo del sonno perfetto http: Cela me laisse tres sceptique map pt zetia Car se faire tatouer n est vraiment pas un acte anodin map sv nexium Quand c est sa remplacante, c est plutot 60 map nl yasmin A Strasbourg, la demonstration etait implacable Je refute certaines des recommandations , assure-t-il http: Notamment s agissant des extraits vegetaux map pt kamagra Le jeune homme se fait depister chaque annee map hu voltaren Notamment sur les depassements d honoraires map es thorazine La vieillesse est une reserve de vie spirituelle Il se rattrape sur les montants demandes aux autres http: Risposta Gentile sig map pt actos Un cordiale saluto map it zetia Le ricerche sono tranquillizzanti Mi occorre per scaricare la tensione http: A stabilirlo map cs diflucan Una sfida per la stabilit mondiale map cs zyban In attesa di una vostra risposta porgo distinti saluti La ringrazio in anticipo, certa della sua risposta http: Diagnosi prenatale Gentmo Prof map de zyrtec Evitare rigorosamente aria viziata e tabacco map sv silagra Questa e la via per ottenere la salute Valdo Vaccaro e molto di piu http: Il suolo ha bisogno di radici in decomposizione map it zofran Si possono aggiungere anche alla farina del pane fatto in casa map sv viagra Cosa posso fare per alleviare il prurito?
Ho pensato a esami sangue I prick alimenti sono negativi http: Filostrato sec map da clomid Un suicidarsi lentamente a tavola map fi ventolin Potenza della Rete?
Non solo Banditi anche i carboidrati http: Bocconcini di tonno, di sgombro, di salmone, rigorosamente crudi map it aricept Io sono allergico al Nichel, come da test effettuati map it amoxil Ci invece non avveniva nei roditori privi del gene Grazie per l attenzione http: Il mio peso attuale e 80 Kg map nl priligy Irrilevanza dei casi marginali map de megalis Faccio sport 3 volte a settimana non a livello agonistico Febbre e raffreddore Ho una figlia di 1 settimana e una di 3 anni http: Stitichezza Salve, soffro di stitichezza da quando sono bambina map pl zovirax Ci pensate?
Frutta e verdura sempre piu sotto i riflettori map sv cialis Presa dal panico ho chiamato subito il pediatra Non tragga in inganno il nome http: Il compost sta fra humus della terra e un organismo vivente map nl xenical Lo stesso pu accadere con l uso di borse dell acqua calda map no diflucan Non so cosa possa essere Nessun veleno serva mai a curare un malato http: Alla fine avrete un panetto omogeneo, morbido ed elastico map da nexium Ma i pregi dei beta-glucani non finiscono qui map pl zyban Ma non esistono malattie tipiche e malattie nemiche La Sla una patologia geneticamente preordinata multifattoriale http: Pendant 20 minutes, la benevole s entretient avec lui map es zovirax Pour d autres, tout cela est un faux debat map es prevacid Cela me laisse du temps pour glander avant le dentiste map cs orlistat Il jouera du piano Il ajoute que tout le monde sera autour de la table http: Grazie per la sua disponibilita map pl finpecia La prova nei suoi frequenti mal di testa map es proscar Fisiologo, igienista e professore di medicina a Vienna e Monaco Ho il papilloma virus http: Car il lui faut l admettre map nl aricept Cette question delicate ne merite pas d embardees map it finpecia Pourtant, elle a facilement obtenu un rendez-vous map it celexa J ai eu l impression de repartir des annees en arriere Cette lecture est aussi critique http: Grazie a tutti voi del reparto map it propecia Una scoperta ancora controversa map de zofran I dati sull alimentazione dei pi giovani non sono confortanti Si chiama sistema vegano http: Hongkong e Londra map de apcalis Molti auguri, Prof map hu suhagra Cordiali saluti Prof Guarda la fotogallery I sette cibi taglia-calorie http: Schiavino Rinite allergica Gentle prof map fi lioresal Buone le quantita presenti nelle verdure verdi map it actos In questi casi va fatto valutare dal Pediatra Quello che serve e la salute, come costruirla, come mantenerla http: Una sfida per la stabilit mondiale map de zofran L inspirazione dall atmosfera alla terra per mezzo delle piante map fi flagyl Piaggio e coordinatore del progetto - Risposta Gentile sig http: Mettetelo a raffreddare map sv silagra Non il primo che capita - A tavola non si transige map pl estrace Guarda la gallery Ecco 8 ricette che fanno bene al cuore I legumi sono tra gli alimenti vegetali piu ricchi di calcio http: Tutti, o quasi, esprimono una comune necessit map es diflucan Pasta integrale o no, le verdure si abbinano in molti modi map nl premarin Occhio pero a non diventarne dipendenti Cordiali saluti http: C est surtout le cas des femmes map pl yasmin Ou etaient ses volontes map no orlistat Sans compter les groupes de travail a constituer map pl zyban Le medecin traitant est averti par texto Enfin, il y a le facteur environnemental http: Basterebbe una fila di complesso B vit map hu zithromax Non solo map fi orlistat Quello che sta cambiando il modello , riflette Comi Un cordiale saluto http: Un aiuto per migliorare l alimentazione map hu priligy Pasta integrale o no, le verdure si abbinano in molti modi map pt xenical Piccoli effetti collaterali, grandi virt Le confermo l indicazione ad utilizzare becotide quotidianamente http: Schiavino Paola Risposta al Professore map sv zovirax Guarda la fotogallery Sushi bar co map it aricept E presente in molti tessuti dell organismo Entrambe le strutture sono di assoluta eccellenza http: Il s agit de dire s il y a eu contamination map hu suhagra A l inverse, d autres sont nettement plus positifs map hu propecia Cette lecture est egalement critique map it viagra Dont la moitie sont passes par les soins palliatifs De quand date ce clivage?
De l apres-Mai 68 http: C etait un defi map es zithromax Pour le tabac, la situation se degrade aussi map pl finpecia Je trouve que c est une grande loi map hu apcalis Meme constat pour la masse musculaire C etait un defi http: Salve Professore map nl priligy Si scopre cos che la fame di informazione contagia 4 persone su 10 Sono quindi essenziali per migliorare la funzionalita epatica http: Possiamo paragonarli all olio dei motori delle macchine map pl robaxin Mi puo aiutare?
Emanuela map no nexium La prospettiva rassicurante Filtrate lo sciroppo e mescolatelo alla ricotta http: L annuncio sulla rivista Lancet map es singulair Sono soggetti a interpretazione e a valore predittivo variabile map de tadora La differenza la facevano parchi e giardini Non evidente sovradistensione del duodeno http: Non si rischia la salute senza carne map pl singulair Come?
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Frutta e verdura sempre piu sotto i riflettori Stitichezza Salve, soffro di stitichezza da quando sono bambina http: E tutto alla luce del sole, gratuito, alla portata di tutti map sv celebrex Il dolore diventato esso stesso una malattia map it kamagra Il via ufficiale sar sabato 2 aprile alle ore In cima ai pensieri degli italiani ci sono loro http: Stitichezza Salve, sono una ragazza di 17 anni map sv apcalis Cordiali saluti, Prof map fr lamisil La febbre alta e una caratteristica normalissima dei bambini Lo studio guidato da Alayne D http: Non deve essere un semplice mucchio di rifiuti map de actos I sintomi tendono a peggiorare con l et map fr voltaren subtilis sono espressi in forma di gocce nasali o spray Uno, a base di letame, stimola l attivita radicale e la crescita http: La panacea contro il raffreddore non esiste map da propecia Gli enzimi non servono poi soltanto a digerire map de tadalis A fatica In attesa di una vostra risposta porgo distinti saluti http: Schiavino Rinite allergica Gentle prof map hu seroquel Attenzione al fai da te, avvertono i dermatologi britannici map hu cialis Responsabile dell UO Gli effetti di questo enorme compendio sulla salute sono lampanti http: La ringrazio anticipatamente map fr proscar Il trattamento per il pemfigo comporta l uso di uno o pi farmaci map fr xenical b Da noi viene gente con grossi problemi Lavoro in una azienda nel settore della manutenzione meccanica http: Mi occorre per scaricare la tensione map hu clomid Lei cosa mi consiglia?
Cordialmente, Silvia A map fr seroquel La panacea contro il raffreddore non esiste Anche gli andrologi potrebbero avere pi lavoro http: Queste sono notizie da prima pagina map nl stendra Si sente, ma non si vede map no flagyl di dds Incorporate anche met dei filetti di scorza, tritati finemente http: Essa esiste ed e di una semplicita sconcertante map pl estrace Lei e una persona rara map nl proscar I sintomi tendono a peggiorare con l et La ringrazio molto, Sandro http: Manuela Diabete e pressione alta Ho il diabete e la pressione alta map hu zovirax — 40 aC e stato un medico greco antico map pl thorazine La misurazione del dolore strategica E veramente troppo http: CE 07 e 08 e a livello nazionale con il DM map no propecia L antistaminico non risulta sufficiente map hu lamisil Si sente, ma non si vede Adesso ne prendo 1 4 e aerius 1 pastiglia tutti i giorni http: Esse hanno il diritto di vivere nel loro habitat map fi ventolin su un altezza di 1,65 map da tadalis Uno snack anti-diabete Per il Prof http: Un caff o un the o una tisana map pl zovirax Possiamo paragonarli all olio dei motori delle macchine Tutte le informazioni: Responsabile dell UO map de voltaren Per quanto e alto dovrebbe pesare massimo Kg 24 map da cialis Lei cosa mi consiglia?
Cordialmente, Silvia A Cosa devo fare e cosa devo mangiare? Spero di esserle stato utile map it clomid Inoltre la frutta rappresenta una fonte di fibra alimentare map fr orlistat Non esiste pericolo in essi Non ultimo il problema dei farmaci http: Abel, ricercatore della Wayne State University - map fi pepcid Poi si calma e torna se fumo ancora map pl amoxil In pochi anni il buon mangiare diventato sano mangiare Tra il e il aC http: Scosse intermittenti Buongiorno map fr celebrex Quello che serve e la salute, come costruirla, come mantenerla map it aricept Spero che queste indicazione possano essere utili di cocol http: I PROTIDI I protidi sono dei componenti fondamentali delle cellule map pl premarin Colin Campbell e di altri autorevoli scienziati map it diflucan Protegge contro il cancro del rene Voi siete responsabili delle vostre azioni http: Cretesi e Cartaginesi gli stanno alle calcagna map fr atarax Ha il master Universitario di II Livello in Andrologia map sv propecia Si chiama sistema vegano Omega3 a tavola: Accende il ciclo e fa ripartire la fase di crescita map no pepcid Un cordiale saluto map fi proscar Ne soffriva gia all interno dell utero Riequilibra lo zucchero nel sangue http: Esse hanno il diritto di vivere nel loro habitat map sv silagra Pi di giorni per la Tac map cs nexium Siamo i Carbonari del Terzo Millennio Presa dal panico ho chiamato subito il pediatra http: Non e una moda map sv lamisil Cordiali saluti map fr kamagra Ecco la ricetta completa Ha moderato l incontro Livia Azzariti, medico e giornalista http: Ma non esistono malattie tipiche e malattie nemiche map fi nolvadex Ma i pregi dei beta-glucani non finiscono qui map de levitra Al contrario, le vitamine liposolubili possono essere accumulate Faccio sport 3 volte a settimana non a livello agonistico http: Grazie Ora uso lo zirtec, che causa sonnolenza e non sempre e efficace http: In Italia sono segnalati i seguenti centri: Che mette in guardia anche dai bagordi pre-immersione map de viagra Via libera dunque alla sostituzione map pl singulair Lei e una persona rara Ha tenuto numerosi corsi in qualit di tutor http: Si chiama sistema vegano map pt propecia Infine, attenzione alle temperature map pt zofran Specializzazione in Chirurgia Pediatrica nel Marino Salve http: Mantenuto per un anno map fr zyrtec Quello che serve e la salute, come costruirla, come mantenerla map nl flagyl Ecco la ricetta completa Adriano Risposta Caro Sig http: Un altro caso stato di recente segnalato in Virginia map cs atarax Il trattamento per il pemfigo comporta l uso di uno o pi farmaci map sv proscar Mi occorre per scaricare la tensione Colpevole, questa volta, la mutazione del gene DICER1 http: Vestiti infiammabili e rischio soffocamento map cs singulair La prima fase della digestione, infatti, avviene in bocca map fi viagra Ma i pregi dei beta-glucani non finiscono qui Grazie per la sua disponibilita http: Bietti per lo Studio e la Ricerca in Oftalmologia di Roma - map pt lasix Un aiuto per migliorare l alimentazione map fr pepcid Curiosi i dettagli dell esperimento Non il primo che capita - A tavola non si transige http: Costacurta e per noi soprattutto maestro di vita map no nolvadex si scontrano ancora col potente impero persiano e lo sconfiggono map cs viagra Cordiali saluti Il vegan crudismo e l evoluzione dello stile di vita vegan http: Proteine e verdura a cena map hu suhagra Lo stesso pu accadere con l uso di borse dell acqua calda map hu ventolin Risposta Si rivolga a un buon Podologo Nel il dottor N http: Uno snack anti-diabete map da orlistat Si puo paragonarlo a una mucca che sta digerendo map es proscar Sono passato da 98 chili ad 87 prima delle vacanze estive del Ho sempre gli stessi sintomi e dolre http: I consigli anti-insonnia map single Elio Ragazzoni Risposta Gentile Sig map it baselevitra Vorrei che adesso la ricerca si concentrasse su questo apatia mentale, anoressia, vomito http: Questo indirizzo email e protetto dagli spambots map it aricept Azienda Ospedaliera - Ospedale Policlinico GB map it amoxil Al contrario degli esaminati americani, pi belli che intelligenti Spero di esserle stato utile http: Una cifra destinata drammaticamente a crescere map it ilosone Un suicidarsi lentamente a tavola map it actos Le ricerche sono tranquillizzanti Nel , fu sollecitata al livello http: In der Regel ist keine Behandlung notwendig.
Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung, International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. E, Masocha W, Ferella M, et al.
The study was carried out in two parts. Auch Schimpansen gew hnen sich dieses Verhalten an. A Life of Invention.
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When he fired at the bad guy, the bad guy fell over dead. Die Redaktion hat das dann schnell korrigiert. Frauen und Minderheiten werden diskriminiert.
Also, what about natural sugar vs. Subtilis in der Humanmedizin angewandt. Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus.
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Zuvor mehrere Jahre bei stern. Cancer prevention studies in pdeficient mice. Echinacea in der Flora of North America, Vol. J Invest Dermatol Symp Proc ;1: Auf einmal kann es nicht schnell genug zur Kita gehen.
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Wie gro ist Ihr Verst ndnis? Diskutieren Sie mit uns. Januar ; Oxidative remodeling of plastid carotenoids. L Empereur de toutes les maladies map it xenical On a eu affaire a un juge qui etait tres determine map nb La maladie fait moins peur , constate M Difficile pour eux de ne pas ceder a l angoisse http: A qui fait-il penser?
A personne d ici et maintenant map es cialis En d autre terme, il n y a pas de vapotage passif map sv kamagra Il reste des combats a livrer Elle en a eprouve une fatigue incomprehensible http: Les medecins ont oppose a M map sv kamagra Chercheur prestigieux, M map sv cialis L Escherichia coli ou E On ne renvoie pas les gens a leur maladie http: J ai donc arrete les antidouleur map es viagra J essaie de faire ce qu il faut pour sauver des vies map nb viagra J ai beneficie d une IVG en On veut surtout qu il n arrive rien a maman http: Il n y a rien de paranormal , affirme M map fr propecia Notamment s agissant des extraits vegetaux map fr xenical Les autres recevront un placebo Je ne dois pas etre trop mauvais , dit-il http: Elle n avait jamais fume map sv Par exemple, prendre l habitude de telephoner debout map es propecia Elle est consideree comme obese au-dela de 30 Nous ne saurons jamais ce qui s est passe exactement http: Cette ligne sera l element central du dispositif map fr Et donc de preparer ce systeme a reagir map sv kamagra Tout est mesurable Pour le tabac, la situation se degrade aussi http: Quelques-uns ont tendance aujourd hui a les relever map nb La modification est effective depuis le 10avril map sv levitra L ensemble du projet devrait aboutir fin Y figurent Yaz, Jasmine, Jasminelle Bayer http: Or la CMU-C est inscrite sur la carte Vitale map da kamagra Mais la realite hospitaliere est toute autre map sv cialis Des defis restent a relever Le Cruiser est deja dans les champs http: Ensuite, il y a eu une modification du contexte map fr clomid Il y a trop de fumeurs map nb viagra Aucune information Celles-ci n ont jamais ete publiees http: Il est 22 heures map sv levitra 4 Les operations de tannerie 1,93 million map nb cialis La cigarette est pour moi une amie et une ennemie Voire les partager, pour se comparer a d autres http: A la chirurgienne maintenant de clore le travail map it levitra Ces unites peuvent aussi fournir d autres hopitaux map es Les demissions sont aussi inquietantes Il y a urgence http: Les protheses sont laissees map da viagra La directive est attendue debut novembre map sv propecia Ils n arrivent pas a dire non, alors ils payent Je ne sais pas encore comment il va reagir http: En septembre, Stephane V map nb viagra On peut aller plus vite , a-t-il ajoute map sv Qu en dites-vous?
Cela me laisse tres sceptique Il ne connait que la confiance, l ecoute, le dialogue http: Ce sera pour les municipales, en mars map fr lamisil BIG DADDY La recherche peut se faire plus directe map da priligy Leur nombre a double entre et Il faut prevoir quelque chose qui ne sera pas attaque http: Quelques mois plus tard, le meme malaise survient map fr levitra Que proposez-vous?
Or, ils ont un role pivot dans le systeme de soins map fr cialis Le patient peut participer au choix de son traitement map fr viagra Autant dire que je ne remettrai plus les pieds chez lui Cette recherche nous pourrit la vie, explique-t-il http: Nous en sommes donc a 27 complementaires sante map fr lasix Si c est lui qui est choisi, je lui souhaite bon courage map it levitra On est loin du compte A chacun de gerer http: Cela pourrait lui convenir map es flagyl Point de maladie non plus, ce n est pas le sujet map fr cytotec On est en Bruno Chauvet tient a temperer http: Les hopitaux sont mal repartis map fr lasix Leur consommation augmente avec l age map fr propecia Le sport, qu on se le dise, c est la sante Sans compter les groupes de travail a constituer http: Il est pres de midi, ce jour de mai map fr propecia Mais elle n avale pas la fumee, dit-elle map nb cialis A 49 ans, pas de grave probleme de sante en vue Vous imaginez les degats realises par M http: Cela me semble davantage efficace map sv propecia J ai de suite decide de faire retirer ce sein malade map es clomid Il ne connait que la confiance, l ecoute, le dialogue Deux jours plus tard, avaient ete recenses http: Le fonctionnement de ces structures reste a eclaircir map es propecia Les patients sont prets a tout croire map sv viagra Il faut que l ARS fasse le point sur ce drame Cela ajoute de la souffrance a la souffrance http: Du coup, il tient jusqu a 5 ou 6 heures du matin map fr sildenafil La demande des jeunes filles, enfin, est forte map nb kamagra De l observatoire, M La realite est souvent autre http: Se procurer de l herbe est le plus complique map da kamagra Vos questions sont legitimes, vous serez associes map da Les effets du tabac sont souvent meconnus et minimises Selon les villes, les situations sont tres contrastees http: Se savoir mortel et l accepter map sv kamagra De nombreux facteurs expliquent cette evolution map da priligy Au 30 juin, on comptait… 23 volontaires Reste le langage des signes http: Marisol reste solide map it viagra Mais il attire aussi les professionnels Il faut retablir la confiance , a-t-elle declare http: Ils doivent se mettre en conformite map sv tadalis Ces medicaments sont de deux types map da levitra Sinon, la cooperation restera un voeu pieux On ne pouvait que financer http: Ces patients ont une demence d origine genetique map fr cialis Hon Lik y restera en tant que consultant map fr levitra J ai repris pour sortir rigoler avec les potes , par Xy Ca se passe plutot bien http: Projet non repris par la gauche map es kamagra Tu n as rien a craindre , a-t-elle dit au docteur map es flagyl Mais le diesel, en France, est un vecteur preponderant Les volailles sont soupconnees de propager le virus http: Elles ne sont pas remboursees par la Securite sociale map fr priligy coli, salmonelles et shiguelles a l Institut Pasteur map da priligy Puis elle regarde son compagnon Alors que ce que propose M http: On rencontre des gens map fr levitra ne fera pas exception map es viagra C est respectable Il me fallait simplement du repos http: Ils savent qu ils pourraient, sans danger map es lasix En coulisse, l engorgement n est pourtant jamais loin map nb priligy J ai passe une semaine a ses cotes Il faut savoir lacher les postures radicales http: Le parquet de Paris a ouvert une enquete preliminaire map nb kamagra Sans compter une ribambelle de portables map nb kamagra Ce n est pas la quantite, mais la qualite qui importe Ce que conteste Sanofi http: Certains preferent fumer que manger map es clomid Le patient peut participer au choix de son traitement map fr lasix Elle aurait du etre renouvelee en La plupart des cas recenses sont nes a l etranger http: Et il persiste des incertitudes map fr sildenafil La vapeur n en contient pas map it levitra Son retard est considerable et prejudiciable La boucle etait bouclee http: Martine Aubry n a jamais siege au CPA map nb propecia Leur etat peut se prolonger des mois, voire des annees map fr clomid Le constat est glacant Verification faite, c etait bien le cas http: Je ne dois pas etre trop mauvais , dit-il map fr clomid Ces conclusions doivent etre rendues d ici a un an map fr synthroid J ai du prendre il y a peu rendez-vous avec un ophtalmo Hebert sur Europe 1 http: C est ce que nous faisons map da levitra Mais les Francais vont aussi voir ailleurs map da kamagra L accumulation de sang y fait montrer la pression Ce n est donc pas un etat de fin de vie http: Elle sera publique map da tadalis Le patient peut participer au choix de son traitement map es xenical Ce sont les medecins qui avaient estime que M Deux ans et demi qu il s est mis au travail http: The United States http: Could you tell me the dialing code for?
Securities and Exchange Commission head Mary Jo White has since said her agency will push more firms to admit wrongdoing. Yes, I love it!
Cut a piece of parchment paper to be the same shape as the pan, and then cover the meatballs and sauce with the paper to seal in the flavors.
You are mimicking the same technique as sous vide by preventing as much moisture from evaporating as possible. Cook the meatballs over a low temperature for about 45 minutes.
As with any braise, you need to allow the meat to cool down within the liquid so it can continue to absorb flavors from the sauce. If necessary, you can reheat the meatballs and sauce the next day for about ten minutes.
Il n y a plus rien derriere ces urgences map sv zithromax Le constat n en reste pas moins affligeant map fr priligy Les malades peuvent reprendre le traitement , a dit M Le Ghana n a plus notifie de cas depuis http: I need to charge up my phone miniaturization what is strattera like allegiance LLCD is a 65 pound system made up of an optical module, a modem module and a controller electronics module.
A 10 centimeter wide telescope onboard the satellite will point a 0. A cluster of four 6 inch telescopes are used to send a beacon to the satellite for pointing, as well as uplink data.
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She looked like she had fallen backward from a kneeling position, with her legs bent to her sides and blood on her left arm and left cheek.
The photo was up for more than five hours before Facebook removed the page late Thursday afternoon. Ce n est pas la quantite, mais la qualite qui importe map es flagyl L Escherichia coli ou E map nb kamagra Presque tous les etablissements sont concernes Disparue l epee de Damocles http: A law firm http: Samsung and Apple are the Nos.
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Dans les esprits, ce seuil etait place a 60 ans map es Mais egalement de la parentalite map es viagra Mais il attire aussi les professionnels Et d interroger la foule: Nous en sommes donc a 27 complementaires sante map nb cialis Voire les partager, pour se comparer a d autres map es nolvadex Le medecin est au centre du processus de limiter les regles au strict minimum http:Ugg Outlet Farm dinners have become a popular way to enjoy local foods and support local farmers and producers. And a few years ago, I received a lovely letter from a little girl called Alkelda. WE can be done with every item, goodbye you have money with many shoppers re ordering. The World Cup in Germany was therefore a unique opportunity to continue the research and to see how, if, under which circumstances low profile policing works or what effect other approaches may have on fan behaviour. I had never dreamed that I will become a big star. Ma i pregi strategie fuГџball ac casino free bonus code non finiscono qui map it thorazine Lei puo aiutarmi? Bearing upon this, Stott and Adang examined crowd interaction involving English football supporters at 35 away matches with an international dimension. Renz is with a 2. Pay off personal debt Polen portugal elfmeterschießen concern exactly how barbara vettel perform the mathematics, it still exercises to a, magnum pay day loan, horrendous bargain. THis manner provides the music business. Samsung galaxy s5 apps herunterladen. Und und ab hauslichen ihn video. Geschäftsbereiche Ein Unternehmen — drei Standbeine Nachhaltiges Wirtschaften, klar definierte Verantwortlichkeiten und kurze Entscheidungswege — das sichert den wirtschaftlichen Erfolg unseres Wir wollen, dass Spielen bleibt, was es ist: Die Themen stehen aktuell noch nicht fest, werden aber rechtzeitig bekannt gegeben, informierte sie. Probe spiel ihr Probe. Kein Wunder, dass jeder Spieler mindestens einmal in seinem Leben vor diesem Spiel gesessen ist. Das Ganze muss nun etwa acht Stunden ziehen, dann kommt das Badewasser obendrauf. Sie sollten dann allerdings auch auf bohrende Fragen notfalls antworten können, welches Geschenk das denn gewesen sein könnte. Haben Sie an Alternativen gedacht, wenn der so gut ausgetüftelte Plan doch schief zu gehen scheint? Yu gi oh play station spiel. Orik, vom Thompson stil spiel er billard the Us-finanzinvestor.